Homework of the week


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Those having problems with the different kinds of migrations, do take a look here:

Migration type
Locations
From
To
Why?
Voluntary pre 1950s
MEDC à LEDC
France, German, United Kingdom and Holland
South Africa
Settlers and explorers were shipwrecked, a year later they were rescued. They found gold, diamonds and other great natural resources and later immigrated. (1952)
First settlers in the Cape were Dutch.

Voluntary recent and temporary
MEDC à LEDC
United Kingdom
West India
It is a great place and it is a cheap place to live or go on holiday, especially retired people.
Voluntary recent, temporary
MEDC à MEDC
Canada, Australia, New Zealand.
Dubai
Dubai has increasingly developed into a technology and finance hub. It is a great tourist destination and more and more people are immigrating there. They normally have contracts which expire.
Voluntary pre 1960s
MEDC à MEDC
Russia
America
(1950s) Those were people displaced by the war who did not want to go back to the Soviet state.
Voluntary recent
MEDC à MEDC
Greece and Poland
Australia
Countries were worn out after World War Two. Australia was prompted as the land of opportunity, and you could get cheap ship fares there.
1. Voluntary*
LEDC à MEDC
South Africa
Australia and New Zealand
Australia is seen as a land of opportunity. It is building on its infrastructure and there job there. They want to escape crime.
2. Voluntary*
LEDC à MEDC
Cuba
America (Miami)
To get away from Fidel Castro’s communist regime. (1959)
Attempted illegal entry
LEDC à MEDC
Mexico
America
America is seen as a land of opportunity, people leave for an all round better life.
Forced – pre 1950s
MEDC à MEDC
United Kingdom
Australia
The criminals were sent to jail in Australia, they did not want convicts in their countries.
Forced – physical removal by aggressor
Any
Germany
Poland, Russia, United Kingdom, China and North America
Hitler forced certain people to leave the country during the Nazi regime.
Forced
LEDC à LEDC
Armenia
Syria
Armenian genocide.
Forced
LEDC à MEDC
Hungary and Romania
France, United Kingdom and Syria.
Polish people fled to Hungary and Romania and then went to Allies France, United Kingdom (and Syria).
Attempted illegal entry
LEDC à LEDC
Zimbabwe
South Africa
This is resent, Zimbabwe’s water is contaminated with Cholera, also there is not enough food, water and housing for people in Zimbabwe and South Africa holds more opportunities and a way to escape poverty.
Voluntary pre 1960s
MEDC à MEDC
United Kingdom
Australia
Australia needed people to help build infrastructure.
Forced
LEDC à MEDC
Armenia
America
Armenian genocide.
Voluntary
MEDC à MEDC
Russia
America
There were several major waves of Russian immigrants into America. The first one happened pre 1950s after the October Russian Revolution in 1917. It mostly consisted of people sympathizing with the old government and trying to escape the Bolsheviks.
Voluntary
MEDC à MEDC
Poland
America and England
Polish people want to start a better life, with well paid jobs, to earn more money. The industrial revolution in America in the beginning of the 20th century had a much greater impact than in certain countries in Europe, like Poland. In America the employment rates were rising with the side effect that there was a lack of workmen in different trades. The Poles had the necessary manpower to fill these gaps (as did other nations), and the largest part of the immigrants were coalminers from Silesia (Polish coalmining area). These were sought badly by certain states in order to expand their mining activity.
Forced
MEDC à LEDC
Poland
Hungary and Romania
To flee the war, to neutral Romania and Hungary.
Is there anything else that you know about migration in the UK - if so please tell me!
(Cameron - don't do this to me again! Uploading is a nightmare!!!)
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Anyone looking for inspiration for the homework this week?









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Take a look at these 2 from Cameron

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Five Indicators by Nick Dyson
Life expectancy
The life expectancy in Italy and Brazil is far greater than in Ethiopia. This is due to the better living conditions e.g. Italy has plenty of hospitals, fresh water for everyone. Ethiopia on the other hand is a LLEC and clean water is in short supply. There is shortage of food and high cases of diseases which leads to a low life expectancy.
Birth rate/ 1000 pop
Ethiopia’s birth rate is significantly higher than Italy or Brazil because of the life expectancy is low (see above) they need to reproduce more so that their community can be maintained and hopefully grow, also when their parents are old, by having more children, the family business will run smoother and they will have someone to look after them in their old age
Infant mortality rate
The mortality rate in Ethiopia is much higher than Italy and Brazil because they just don’t have the facilities to protect babies. E.g. in Italy babies are given vaccines to help fight off infections and diseases also in Ethiopia if the mother runs out of milk the mother can’t get Formula milk so there is a high chance the baby could die.
Water
Italy has 10x more water than Ethiopia and 2x more water than Brazil. Italy probably needs more water because of a bigger population and their needs to survive. Brazil probably has a lower population so does not need to have as much water, but with that said they should be given what they are getting. Finally Ethiopia’s water rate is appallingly low, because they have a lack of clean water people in Ethiopia will be getting a lot of diseases from unclean water.
Unemployment
Unemployment is very low in Italy and Brazil but in Ethiopia there practically isn’t any unemployment, this is because the people in Ethiopia work on farms to feed themselves but not to make a profit out of it

Energy Fact files (with a difference!) by Michael L-W


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Click on this to open
A great way to use PP - I think I need some lessons! (LM)















High-tech industry mystery by Jordan

Why is there a science park in Cambridge?
1. Not far from London, so would be good for students in London that want to go to CSP for education.
It is world renowned for outstanding achievements.
CSP has ideal surroundings : lots of fields.
Easy access to that area, due to the shuttle bus.

Why does John Martin take a job there?
2. He has been offered a well paid job in Cambridge.
Cambridge is surrounded by countryside, ideal for the sport he enjoys, Golf.
Lower house prices.
It’s a nice working environment as the CSP.
His office has a great view of the fields
Cambridge is a Flat city, so great for bike riding with his family.
Child care at the CSP for his children.

This is not a whole homework but I love it - Thanks Tommy!

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Title: Volcanoes – Mount Pinatubo by Erika

For a volcano you have studied
(i) Explain its causes
Mount Pinatubo is a composite volcano on the island of Luzon in the Philippines (Asia), 110km north-west of Manila, which is the capital of the Philippines. It is over 600 years old and had not erupted for about 500 years until 1991. It was 1,745 m above sea level before it erupted. Composite volcanoes, like the Mount Pinatubo, are made of layers of lava and ash. Usually the eruptions do not consist of lava, but of pyroclastic flows. It is extremely dangerous as it can flow at high speeds. Composite volcanoes are formed along destructive plate margins, which form when two tectonic plates converge. An oceanic crust goes under a continental crust and is destroyed by magma. Magma erupts when water escapes from hydrated minerals. This causes the mantle’s melting point to lower down, so it melts. The magma rises and reaches the magma chamber which is found under a volcano. Since its pressure decreases, water comes out from the magma and gas inside it expands. Once enough gas and magma are collected in the magma chamber, the volcano erupts. By the end of the eruption the lava forms a crater on the upper part of the volcano and lava on the surface of the volcano will cool down.

(ii) Describe its effects on the landscape and people.
Recently, from 9th to 15th June 1991, Mount Pinatubo erupted. It was one of the two most destructive eruptions of the 20th century where there were only 300 deaths caused directly by the volcano. There were continuous pyroclastic flows reaching about 5 km on the first day and on worse days as far as 16 km. Pyroclastic flows are a mixture of hot steam (about 400°C), ash, rock and dust and can flow quickly (70-80 kph on the seventh day). By the fourth day rivers ad tributaries near the volcano were filled with pyroclastic flows and on the first seven days heavy clouds of ash were ejected from Mount Pinatubo, reaching 25 km above sea level and becoming 15-18 km wide. Lahars and other volcanic activities destroyed fishponds and important agricultural lands (over 86000 hectares) and made them unusable. They were also the major cause for the malfunction of irrigation systems, water service facilities, power transmissions and roads. The heavy weight of ash ejected by the volcano demolished houses and buildings and 650000 people could not work because many farms, work places etc. were destructed. Airports were closed down for four days and many Americans in the Clark Air Base had to abandon their place. Over 1.18 million people were affected, 847 people died (directly or indirectly) and 23 went missing.

(iii) How the authorities reduced the impact of the eruption at the time and of the after effects since.
Even though 1 million people lived near the Mount Pinatubo, the number of deaths was very low considering the circumstances. This was due to the help of the scientists of the PHIVOLCS and the USGS. On 2nd April 1991 steam was ejected from the volcano. From 6th April to 7th June there were small earthquakes and ash ejections on 3rd June. It was from April that scientists of the PHIVOLCS had noticed the dangers of Mount Pinatubo. Soon the American scientists collaborated with them and introduced portable instruments which were used to monitor the volcano. They researched the volcano’s history as well as its past eruptions. As soon as they found that there was going to be a huge eruption that would lead to severe damage, they sent a warning to evacuate the people safely. Airports were closed down to stop flights. On 9th June at quarter past three the PHIVOLCS issued Alert Level 5. The eruption started only at around 6 a.m. With their help about 5000 to 20000 people were saved, including all of the people in the Clark Air Base. The casualities were very low. Only 250 lowland residents and 20 indigenous Aeta highlanders were killed.


Compare and contrast the effects of earthquakes on LEDCs with MEDCs. By Cameron
More economically developed countries (MEDC's) tend to survive earthquakes better than less economically developed countries (LEDC's).
There are a few reasons as to why this happens.

1) MEDC’s are likely to have buildings designed to withstand earthquakes. They have the money and systems to make sure that buildings are carefully designed to withstand shaking, and can afford to add safety features to older buildings that may be at risk. They may have huge rubber pads built into the foundations (seismic isolators) or very deep foundations to hold them firmly in place. In 1995, the Kobe earthquake hit in Japan. Measuring 7.2 on the Richter scale it had the potential to cause massive damage to vulnerable buildings, but because many buildings were designed to withstand earthquakes, only 6432 people were killed.
LEDC's often can't afford to build new structures to the same standards as MEDC's, they have a greater chance of poor quality construction, and they lack the money to upgrade older buildings. In contrast to the Kobe earthquake that killed 6432, an earthquake of a slightly smaller intensity hit Gujarat in India in 2001. It killed 20 000 people.
2) MEDC’s have disaster plans, government departments responsible for managing and coordinating emergency responses, and for educating the public about natural hazards. In Japan regular earthquake drills are held in schools and places of work, and every year a full-scale practise for armed forces and emergency services is held. Emergency services actually practice through simulations, so they know exactly what they should do if disaster strikes. Most LEDC's don't have enough money to develop emergency plans, buy the response equipment and training needed, and conduct very expensive training exercises involving thousands of people.
After the Indian earthquake in Gujarat (2001) the Indian government blamed the Gujarat authorities for not having disaster plans, for not educating people about what to do if an earthquake occurred, and for not having systems in place to make sure that buildings were built to withstand earthquakes. Some sections of the Gujarat authorities responded, saying that they didn't have the money to do it, and pointed out that it was normal for the Indian Army to come to the rescue when natural disasters struck, so why did they need plans of their own?
3) MEDC's are self-reliant. They can afford to allocate funds to 'just in case' measures. They keep emergency stocks of medicines, tents, blankets, food, water, and communications equipment. It's kept ready for use and constantly updated. Many LEDC's struggle to provide these facilities for normal use let alone keep a spare set of everything in case of disasters.
The speed with which these resources reach an area is critical to reducing deaths. MEDC's have the resources close at hand and can be sending them out within hours. By contrast, LEDC's often have to ask for help, and mobilising international aid can take days. As a result people die from diseases as they have no fresh supplies.