Paper 3 : Papers and practical notes:

Where to find coursework to borrow and cheat with if you do not have your own!

http://ysgol-rhyngrwyd-igcse.wikispaces.com/Coursework+examples there you will find Cameron's Tiah's and Lily's
There is also some good stuff from this year's Y10 on http://ih-igcse-geography.wikispaces.com/1.10.+River+Coursework - right at the bottom is Nathan's, Nick's, Callan's and Alec's
While they were doing their rivers, I had a go too - http://lindym.wordpress.com/category/rivers/ but remember you need to go down to find day 1 and work your way up until you get to the conclusion!

Week 5: 24 Feb 2010

Powerpoint:
Class Notes for Nov 2009:
Homework for Foundation - Nov 2009:
Homework for Higher - May 2009
Example of mini-charts fro data display:

Notes for both papers

Nov 2009

River
Tourism in the Lake district
+ Qu 3

May 2009

Renewable resources
Urban land Use
+ Qu 3
Nothing new for Qu1 or Qu2

Rivers – 2 issues we have not come across before

Stone size and shape:
Near the source, the bedload is newly eroded from the river channel and is a mixture of large and small pieces but is usually angular – got lots of pointy bits.
If the river has the energy to move these fragments, then they tend to bump into each other, and the point bits get rubbed/knocked off by attrition. In the process the bedload gets smaller.
So one of the river features that are often measured is the angularity and the longitudinal axes – the longest dimension you can get from each pebble/stone. So one pattern you would look for is that the longitudinal axes would get shorter as you went down stream
Equally, using a Power’s chart, you would expect the average class to rise as you proceed down stream
1.10_Stone_board.png

River Velocity

The general rule is that the channel is steeper near the source and so the general assumption is that the velocity will be higher near the source and then will decrease towards the flatter parts of the course. But, also you might remember that a rough channel slows the river down – and it really depends who wins – gravity or friction.
But there is yet another variable to be taken into account!
The discharge (= cross sectional area x velocity), is the amount of water passing a particular point per second (cumecs)
Now unless water is drawn off for irrigation for example, the discharge is unlikely to get smaller as you go down stream – and unless there are tributaries can be assumed to be more or less constant.
But certainly in the R Wye, as I walk along its banks, the velocity is not constant – in the wider stretches it seems to gently amble along but where it is forced between a couple of large boulders, it is bubbling through much faster.
Now if you think about this, that is obvious – if the discharge remains the same, but the cross-section gets smaller, then velocity must increase to keep up. So here is yet another explanation of why velocity may change.

Having looked at all the available question 3’s, I see that the general plan seems to be changing:

For a start they want a title – no marks allocated but without it subsequent answers are down marked
So if you are asked for the title or for the question or issue you investigates – they mean the same thing:

Question/issue Examples
How does the character of the River _ change downstream?
How does the character of (town’s name) change from the CBD to the rural urban fringe?
Is there a link in
_ (town’s name) between the nature of the environment and the number of pedestrians?

Many of them then go on to ask for the aims or 2 aims or the purpose
Aims for river examples
to identify differences at three (or however many) sites on the River
that can be easily and safely reached
to measure the width, depth and velocity at all the sites (or whatever information you collected)
to determine why velocity changes downstream (possibly if that is what you did)

Aims for town examples
To identify X sites in _ (town’s name) that demonstrate …… {e.g. different types of land use, are equally distributed sites between the CBD and the urban rural fringe etc )
To asses the pedestrians using each site
To assess the environmental quality of each site
To determine if there are links between ……. (list items that you are collecting data on)

There is also a difference between data collection and data presentation


Data collection is amassing the information – and do remember data is NOT just numbers, it is any information in the form of numbers, words and pictures, so these are the kind of thing that come under this heading

Data collection for rivers
Secondary data: To locate suitable site, use of OS map to find for example where access to the river is possible, e.g. footpaths, bridges etc
base map of drainage basin
field sketches/ and/or sketch maps at each site – or photographs for annotation
measurement of ….. e.g. width, depth, gradient and wetted perimeter, velocity measurement across the channel and of the depth at each site
Data collection for towns
Secondary data: Google map in aerial view helped to choose representative sites.
base map of town, locating main roads, stations and important features and the sites chosen
sketch maps/field sketches at each site – or photograph for annotation
pedestrian counts
Information from environmental quality surveys

Data presentation however, is what you do with it in the context of your report

Data presentation for rivers
Annotated map of the area showing the survey points
Annotated field sketches/ maps or photographs
bar charts, pie charts, scaled cross-sections, scatter graphs (whichever are appropriate)
Mini-charts attached to the points of survey on a map of the river course - is a really good way of showing relationships between what you are measuring in relation to place (see example in attachment above)

Data presentation for towns
Annotated map of the area showing the survey points
Annotated field sketches/ maps or photographs (to show environmental quality for example)
bar charts, pie charts, scaled cross-sections, scatter graphs (whichever are appropriate)
Mini-charts attached to the points of survey on a map of the town – is a really good way of showing relationships between what you are measuring in relation to place (see example in attachment above)

Week 4: 10 Feb 2010

Powerpoint:
Class Notes for May 2006:
Homework for Foundation - May 2006:
Homework for Higher - Nov 2006


Notes for both papers

Notes on May and November 2006
May 2006 is for class discussion and may be done for homework by those doing Foundation
Nov 2006 is for those doing higher and may be done by those doing Foundation if they feel happy with the notes they made in class for May 2006
Nov: Settlements – landuse

  • drawing conclusions x 2 – just a point – always check you think they have it right – have they asked the right questions? Have they made the right assumptions?
  • survey – interpreting information – try to include the words ’valid’ = can you really say that from this information? and ‘reliable’ – this is more to do with enough data of the right sort. Also look at the interpretation you are being asked to judge – is there any other conclusion that is more valid or just more informative
May: Settlements – Traffic flows
  • Completing a pictogram – same as bar graph – except use fraction of symbols where appropriate
  • Traffic flow – variation on one we did before – arrow width = flow – use a ruler
Nov: Rivers:
  • Complete a cross-section – when I talked before about drawing a cross section, I mentioned a page edge to put marks on – you would not be able to do that in an exam – so you are going to have to use a ruler : measure A to 1st contour – put that along the horizontal axis with number and repeat for each contour then mark in points at right height and join the spots
May: Clean energy and wind farms:
  • Describe location – use all information on the map – make sure you indicate direction and distances if compass points/scales are provided.
Question 3:
  • Map – label sites and annotate to explain chice
  • Outline the purpose – we talked about this last week. The purpose of my field was to find out if …. To do this I surveyed ……. points along the River X/at various places in Town Y
  • Prior considerations: – Health and safety. Deciding where and how and what and then including the items you would take – including describing any tables/charts and what they would have on them
  • 2 methods of data collection + 1 problem -
  • How to extend data collections and how it would help? As said before, extending falls into 3 types – more samples at a point, more places sampled and improved methods – choose 2 relevant to your fieldwork. How could this help – ‘The conclusions I came to would have more validity as the data would be more reliable.’ Certain 2 marks!! Especially if you wove your own field work into that answer.


Week 3: 3 Feb 2010

PowerPoint:
Class Notes:
Homework:
This time I have indicated by putting a * by each relevant question the ones I expect answers to as part of the homework

Town and city layout

Most urban areas follow models similar to one of these.
CBD is multi-storied, with no gaps between buildings, because the land is expensive and shops and other services use this area. The pavements are wide and usually it has been ‘prettied up’ to make a pleasant place that attracts visitors to use it.
Old inner city residential is mostly 2 storeys opening onto narrow streets with narrow pavements and no off road parking. Poor environmental quality.
The further out you go, the more spaced out the buildings. Bigger houses are here, as are business parks and shopping malls. Again, likely to be kept up well with trees and parking. Good environmental quality

Environmental quality survey

This can be carried out by a questionnaire
Or it can be done by the researcher giving scores.
These often are scored from 0 (bad) to 5 (good) or from =2(good) to -2 (poor) through zero.
The items being considered will vary from survey to survey, but typically look at rubbish, grafitti, the upkeep of the houses etc.
Here is a much better (but far too long) version of the idea used in Novemember 2005, which was biased and not entirely helpful - but if you are thinking of using such a thing pick out a varied selection of 6-8 of these:
environmetal_quality.png

What you need to be aware of about rivers

The velocity of a river is notoriously unpredictable.
The theory says that it flows faster near the steepest bit at the top and slower as the channel flattens out.
Last time we saw that the velocity slowed as the cross-section became greater.
But as noted at the time, when the depth stayed fairly constant, one explanation of that was that because the difference in cross-section was really a difference in width, then we were talking of increased channel friction.
But this is not a universal truth! Sometimes it goes faster when you expect it go slower – and to work out why that might be, you need to go and have a look! Could be further up stream there are a load of rocks for the water to scramble round! So when it comes to scatter diagrams go with the flow!
[Yes that was an intended pun!


Preparing ideas for field work

What question or issue did you investigate?
This is asking about the hypothesis:
  • · How does the land use in a town change with the distance from the centre?
  • · Is there a relationship between the number of pedestrians and the land use?
  • · Is there a relationship between the speed of a river and the width?

Describe briefly the purpose of the investigation
What was the main aim of your fieldwork?
What was the main aim of your investigation?
  • · The purpose/aim was to do a ground floor count in …. (or along a transect) and pedestrian count in .. places and to use this to find out if …..

One of these appear to be a dead certainty:
Describe the location of your fieldwork. (4)
Draw a sketch map of the fieldwork area and label the sites where you collected your data.(4)
No matter how improvised your qu 3 is, have something relevant to draw – they are not going to check it out

One that has only turned up once so far but may reappear:
State two practical preparations made before carrying out the fieldwork.(2)
  • · Health and safety ought to be a consideration – are you going with someone? Who knows you are going? Have you organised to call during the time?
  • · Working out exactly what you are going to do in what order? Having a working timetable, allowing reasonable time to complete tasks.
  • · What do you need to take with you? Prepare for weather – waterproof container for you and the bits and pieces. Do you need to prepare any tally/other charts? Has you watch got a stop watch facility for timing events – either time for an orange floating down a river or 10 minutes for a pedestrian count. Measuring tape, camera etc – this is only worth 2 so long as you do not simply put down clipboard and pen, you should manage 2 marks.

Data collection is a frequently referring theme:
Explain how you made sure that the data you collected was as accurate and reliable as possible.(3)
Describe what data was collected and how it was collected. [You will need to refer to techniques, equipment, time taken and sampling procedures.](6)
Explain in what ways this data collecting stage of the investigation was (6)(i) successful (ii) might have been improved
  • · Data collection is the gathering of information in the form of numbers, words or even images. The implication is that you need at least 2 sets of data, so that you can see whether there is a relationship between one thing and another. E.g. the further you are from the CBD, the fewer pedestrians there are – data collected: distance from CBD, pedestrian counts at measured spots on the way – distance could be measured using google maps or a car odometer.
  • · DO NOT SAY you estimated the number of pedestrians by counting all you could see in one go – explain how you should have done a pedestrian count. ‘Standing in one place and using a stop watch and a tally chart, count how many people passed you in 10 minutes, passing in one direction and then repeat for people going in the opposite direction. If it is a quiet area, it may be possible to tick off both directions at once without loss of accuracy.’

Another thing that turns up about data
Give two reasons why you chose these places to collect your data. (2)
Or as on the previous page, questions about sampling procedure
Answers to this can be pragmatic (do what is reasonable) or can demonstrate good sampling technique:
  • · E.g. I chose to measure the width and depth of my river, where footpaths permitted me access
  • · Or I did pedestrians counts in the areas which were predominately of one land use type, e.g. CBD, mostly industrial, terraced housing, detached housing
  • · Or I did an environmental quality survey at 1 km distances from the CDB

Yet another favourite
How could you have improved your data collection?(3)
State one problem that occurred during your data collection.(1)
How did you solve this problem?(2)
Classic answers but make them a bit more specific to your situation:
  • · Bigger survey at each point – 1 dropped my orange in the river 3 times, but on occasion it got stuck and took ages so 1 out of 3 was an anomaly – I omitted it and carried out a further test but I could have done it 5 times and kept the larger time value in. Then the anomaly would have had less effect on the average.
  • · More survey points: I only did 3 environmental quality surveys – if I had done them at more sample points, the results might have been clearer.
  • · Inaccurate collection methods: I decided to do count my pedestrians going both ways at once. This was fine in mostly residential areas where the numbers were low, but I am not entirely sure of my accuracy in the CBD as it was much more crowded.

Another area to consider
Select one of your methods of presenting data. Why did you choose this method? You may include a diagram as part of your answer. (4)
What other method could you use to present this same data? (2)
· What are the ways of displaying data to the greatest effect?
  • · Scatter diagrams are the best way to compare 2 data sets
  • · Comparing data from different sites could be pie charts or stacked bar charts – clustered bar charts make comparison really tricky – clustered are where you have lots of little bars in different colours side by side –
  • · so that question about another way to display is always to say clustered bars (if the data works for that) – as it does not work as whatever else you said you did!
  • fieldwork area and label the sites where you collected your data.(4)


Week 2: 27 Jan 2010


PowerPoint:
Class notes:
You need to download the map but do not try and print it off - the quality is not good enough - but it is fine on-screen
Homework:

Notes for Paper 3 May 2005

Skills this week
  • Divided or compound bar charts
  • Limitations of data collection
  • 4 figure grid reference
  • Flow line charts
  • Also review about find patterns from graphs

Divided or compound bar charts
This where you stack all the items up so it is easy to see where the most important ones are M2005Graph1.png
The bars can be horizontal or vertical for these.

Limitations of data collection
1. There is too little data – too few points of collection, not enough collected at each place etc
2. The method of collection was not accurate enough – poor quality tools ( e.g orange rather than flow meter), guessimates rather than accurate measurement, not keep the variables all the same ( e.g different time of day/weather conditions.
3. Sampling method not fair – select 10 stones from bedload – you would be picking up huge ones and you may miss tiny ones
Can you think of any others?


4-figure grid refermeces M2005Graph2.png
4 figure references tell you which square an item is in. Each square is reference by its bottom left hand corner. The order is 2986 What is the blue square called?
M2005Graph3.pngThe number may be given along the bottom and up the side.
But they may appear within the text of the map
What are the labels of the red square? (2886) The blue square?









Looking for trends or patterns
The answer comes in 2 parts. M2005Graph4.png
(a) reading the graph
(b) explaining what this means
(c) if more than 4 marks are given, then go for how good the correlation is or anomalies etc
Answer: As the height increases, so does the weigh.
What this means is that heavier people tend to be taller.
This data shows that the pattern is quite strong because most of the points marked are close to the line that could be drwn through the middle.








Flow line chart/ diagram/map
M2005Graph5.png
This is an example of a flow line chart/map. It shows the size of the flow and well as its direction. Sometimes the lines are also drawn to scale for distance – this one is not.
Another use for flow line charts are in recording pedestrian counts – the more people heading in one direction, the wider the line


















Week 1: January 20 2010


PowerPoint:
Class notes:
Homework:

Spec1_Correlation_graph.png

Notes for specimen paper 3

You will be asked to look for a trend or pattern – the answer comes in 2 parts
(a) reading the graph
(b) explaining what this means
(c) if more than 4 marks are given, then go for how good the correlation is or anomalies etc
As the daily rainfall increases, the maximum temperature decreases.
This means that on wetter days it tends to be cooler in summer as there would be less direct sunlight to warm the air.
The correlation is quite good for some rainfall, but rain-free days can be both warm and cool

River features we are going to look at today
What you can measure:
Width
Depth at regular intervals across the width
Velocity of the water at various points and levels
Work out an estimate of cross-section
Work out an estimate of the discharge
Angle of slope
Stone angularity and length
Can’t think of any others right now!

Measuring width
The WIDTH of the river channel can be measured by taking a 30 metre tape measure and stretching it from bank to bank. It should be kept as taut as possible to be accurate. If the stream bank is sloping, keep the tape as near to the water surface as you can so that you can line it up with the bottom of the bank.
Possible problems: banks overgrown with vegetation may cause problems in terms of finding the exact edge of the stream.

Measuring Depth
Once the tape measure is stretched across the channel, it is easy to move along at regular intervals e.g. one metre, and measure the DEPTH of the stream using a metre rule. Measure depth in metres e.g. 0.25 for 25 cms. so that width and depth measurements are the same units. Regular, accurate readings will allow you to draw an accurate cross-section of the stream channel.
Possible problems: large boulders or debris may make the stream very shallow at a particular point - record the reason for this on your data sheet. If the stream bed is soft, the ruler may sink into the mud.

Measuring Velocity
The speed or VELOCITY of the stream can be measured in two ways. If you have a flowmeter, this allows you to take accurate readings at different positions across the stream and also at different depths if you wish. Ideally, you should take at least three readings - in the centre, close to the left bank and close to the right bank. This will allow you to see the effects of meanders on the position of the fastest current. The flowmeter has a propeller which turns in the moving water. The number of turns is recorded on a digital counter.
If you do not have a flowmeter, you will need to play 'pooh sticks'. Measure out a length of stream, five or ten metres is ideal. Float a small stick, an orange or similar object along the stream and time how many seconds it takes to get from marker one to marker two. The velocity can be calculated using the formula: speed = distance/time. Ideally, do this two or three times to get an average.
Problems: Even expensive flowmeters break down! Floating an object gives surface velocity which is not usually the maximum velocity. It is difficult to get readings close to the banks using floating objects.

The issues
You would expect the velocity to be slower near the bed of the river, next slowest at the surface and fastest in in deeper water – all due to friction. Where the water rubs up against another material ( air or rock), there will be friction – greater with the rock than the air.
So a narrow deep stream will move faster than a wider shallow one.
Taking a measurements at different depths and different points from the banks can give you information.
You may recall that the velocity of a river varies with (a) the steepness of fall (deal with that another day) but also (b) the position on a bend.
On meanders, water flows fastest on the outside of the bend, and thus can erode the outside more effectively. It is slower on the inside and hence more deposition takes place, leading to river beaches or run-off slope

What we need to think about today
What you can measure
Transect/ ground floor count of land use
Interviews to find the range and sphere of influence of particular shops/centres
Pedestrian/ traffic count to establish where most movement takes place
Environmental quality surveys
Probably some others but …

What we need to know about towns/cities?
Most towns have a CDB (Central Business District), where you find shops, offices, banks etc. The building are multi-storey and there are few gaps as the price of land is so expensive.
Around the CBD, you have either old industry or older lower class housing or new housing estates and tower blocks.
Beyond this, the housing quality increases as the distance from the CBD increases
Around the edge of towns/cities, you may have a ring road where new shopping centres, industrial parks and more modern housing is being built, all of which benefit from good transport infra structure and the ease of developing on greenfield sites.
Also along major roads, factories and shopping centres may spring up especially if there is no ring road for them to attach to.

Data Collection
Ground floor count of land use: this is one way to establish the main land use for an area, without getting too complicated – it is especially useful in multi-storey multi-occupancy buildings – you merely log what happens at ground level, deemed to be the most important use and ignore anything else.
You can then divide up an area using a grid and note the most common usage in any square.
This gives you a good impression of the general pattern for an area.
Pedestrian Count – this is a precisely timed activity where several counts in different places take place at the same time and for the same length of time.
Often it is done in pairs, with one person counting from left to right and the other counting in the opposite direction.
From this can be established the relative busy-ness of the various points – and can be used by local authority planning departments when they are considering changing paths etc.
Usually the time monitored is 10 minutes. The monitoring must take place at the same time as there are more/less people about at different times/days/weather patterns.
Comparing a wet Monday morning with a sunny Saturday afternoon would not give valid results!