Unit 1B Hazards Part 1

[ Please note: The Word list for Unit 1A Water is here]

Lesson 1

This is the classwork file:

Here is the PowerPoint for this week:

and for this week's homework:

Unfortunately these only work once - to see them again, you need to leave the page and then return again!
However you can go to the originals where you will find links to constructive, collision and destructive plates - among others
Constructive Plate
Destructive Plate

Anyone want to know even more about Plate Tectonics? (More than you really need to know?). This is a great site with excellent animations
Also from this site is:

Mountain building
Earth's Interior
A video about the San Andreas Fault on http://lindym.wordpress.com/igcse/

Lesson 2

This is the classwork file:

Here is the PowerPoint for this week:

and for this week's homework:

Earthquakes: Earthquake Safety Tips; Earthquakes:
Kobe link ; More Kobe links; The BBC on Bhuj one year after;
Predicting earthquakes

Describe what has been done in some urban areas to limit earthquake damage.

Haz2_LA_ad.pngTraining - in the US earthquake zones there is in school practice and plenty of websites with games and fun things to help children learn what to do.
There are events (see left) which are free and have music entertainment to encourage people to go.
Families are encouraged to have a plan. Where do you keep papers like passports and bank books? Have you got an emergency box close to hand? If you get split up, who do you all phone out of town to get in contact?
Haz1_Indian_house.pngNote from the PowerPoint about how to build a simple(ish) quake proof home. After Gujarat Earthquake in 2001

In Japan after Kobe: this is summary of the PP below
· The National government established the Cabinet Information Collection Centre, with ministers responsible for disaster manangement.
· Also the government developed disaster information system, which are Early Estimation System and Emergency Measure Support System.
· Nation Wide Support System for Disaster Emergency Response
- National Police Agency, Fire and Disaster Management Agency, Coast Guard and
· Self Defense Forces
- Inter-Prefectural Support Agreement
- Medical Transportation Action Plan
- Designation of Emergency Hospitals
- Designation of Heliports
· As the government’s countermeasure, national government enact “Seismic Building Retrofitting act” in 1995 to promote seismic retrofitting of existing vulnerable buildings.
· Government also made subsidy system for retrofitting.
· For seismic diagnosis of buildings national and local government shoulders 2/3 of the cost. For retrofitting large buildings 13% of the cost, and houses in dense residential areas 15% of the cost are shouldered by governments.
· Fourth lesson learned was “Importance of Community and Volunteer”.
· Most people were rescued from rubble of collapsed building by local community people.
· And 1.4 million volunteers rush to damaged area to support victims.
· Volunteers were really helpful especially in field of medical, architecture, welfare, logistics and so on
· Support the improvement and reinforcement of the system and function of volunteer disaster response groups
·  Implement training to nurture leaders, and offer goods and equipment
·  Percentage of households participating in volunteer disaster response groups
· 27.4% (1995) →94.7% (2005)
· Revision of Compensation Framework
· Revision of Local Tax Law
· Fund of 900 billion yen (9 billion US$) was established in April 1995
· New Support Framework
· - Livelihood Restoration Fund Loans
· - Increased Rent Subsidies
· - Assistance for voluntary activities, events to revitalize shopping arcades, community building, etc.
· Live in Harmony with Nature: understand the nature (dangerous slopes, active faults, etc.)
· Water and Greenery: part of infrastructure e.g. Rokko Mountain Range Green Belt Development Project (prevent landslides, flash floods, etc.)
· Decentralization of Urban Functions
· Balanced Transportation System: alternate routes
· Urban Infrastructure (ensure public space: roads, parks, public squares, etc.)
· Fire & Earthquake Resistant Buildings
· Life lines: fail-safe approach
· Importance of Sharing Information, Knowledge, Lessons and Experience on the Earthquake
· Importance of Education in Disaster Reduction
· Importance of Research in Disaster Reduction
· Importance of Citizen Centred and Active Community
· Conclusion:
· - Strengthening of Response and Preparedness Capacity
· - Establishment of coordination mechanisms and a legal framework for disaster risk management
· - Integration of disaster reduction concept into development planning (including urban planning)
· - Improvement of information management
· - Promotion of education and public awareness
· - Development of multi-stakeholder partnerships and citizens’ participation
· - Community participation and empowerment

There is a lot of stuff here – you can’t remember it all but maybe pick out the general points anda couple of examples:

1. Have a government department to organize disaster management
2. Train emergency services how to respond and have back-up communications
3. Ensure that new building are built to high standards and that old ones are retrofitted to meet these standards
4. Train volunteers how to respond quickly and effectively.
5. Train everyone what to do if a quake hits
6. Alter planning laws to take account of possible problems, land slides.


How would you cope if a magnitude 7.8 earthquake struck? Very unlikely in Swanwick, but a real possibility for people living near the San Andreas Fault... which is why, on 13th November, more than 5 million people in Southern California will be taking part in The Great Southern Californian Shakeout - "the largest earthquake preparedness activity in US history".

Have a look at this video which shows what could happen when "the big one" strikes, and check out the ShakeOut website where there is lots more information, more video clips, and you can test your earthquake preparedness by playing Beat the Quake


It is more about the Kobe Earthquake. Although the Japanese did so much better than the Buja Earthquake, they know they could have done a whole lot better!
This is what they plan to do:

Lesson 3

This is the classwork file:

Here is the PowerPoint for this week:

Here is the homework for this week:
Mount Pinatubo links:
http://www.georesources.co.uk/pinatubo.htm Very useful case study notes.
http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Volcanoes/Philippines/Pinatubo/description_pinatubo.html - useful for background as is...
http://volcano.und.nodak.edu/vwdocs/volc_images/southeast_asia/philippines/pinatubo.html Volcano World links...
Mount Pinatubo one year after
Mount Pinatubo 5 years after

Watch the Lahar!
[it takes a few moments to load - then you need to click to triangle to make it start]

Thanks, Robin, for this one!
Types of volcanic hazards found here. Might be an idea to copy/print off the diagram and also to click on the links under the diagram which tells you more about each hazard.
The plus side of living on volcanos

We studied Mount Pinatubo and saw how spectacularly successful they were in the predicting and protecting the people who lived on the mountain. But while we are getting better at prediciting we are not here yet! Read this article 'Can we forecast eruptions?' to see it is not yet cut and dried. What happens if an eruption is predicted that does not happen? What do the locals think about that? Read the article to find out!

Lesson 4

This is the classwork file:

Here is the PowerPoint for this week:

and for this week's homework:

A disaster colouring and information book for kids - take a look and see what you should do if you live in a hazardous area.


A really brilliant revision booklet for all of tectonics - does it all and some! It has some of the same case studies and some different ones

Lesson 5

This is the classwork file and homework file: only the second page is for homework!!

Here is the PowerPoint for this week:

Click on the picture and it will take you to a site where you can investigate all that is going on inside the hurricane (you need to click on the titles beneath the graphic once it is open)

After Bush and Co made such a mess over Katrina, maybe they did learn their lesson this year. Water, food and tents all in place after only a couple of days. But not much hope of returning to Galveston for a while. Read all about about Ike

Thanks, Cameron, for this one! I tired loading the file but it would not be in it - so I have left you a screen dump and link to the page below!

This can be found on this BBC page which also has lots of other useful 'hazard' links

Katrina games: some stuff you will know - some extra - Katrina Game 1 Katrina Human causes Katrina Natural causes Katrina effects


Lesson 6

This is the classwork file:

Here is the PowerPoint for this week:
And about revision:

and for this week's homework: (revision notes)

808 Hurricane Neddy This is a Simpsons link!!


(I think they have missed out a few - even though this came from the exam board! - what about magma chamber, primary and secondary vent, constructive margin .... can you think of any others?)
collision margin The plate boundary between converging tectonic plates.
conservative margin A plate boundary where two plates are moving parallel to it but in opposite directions
crater A rounded, funnel-shaped hollow, usually at the top of a volcano, through which lava and ash have been ejected
cyclone An area of low pressure with winds moving in a spiral around the central point (also referred to as a depression).
destructive margin A plate boundary formed where two plates meet head on and one plate is forced below the other.
earthquake A sudden or violent movement within the Earth’s crust followed by a series of shocks.
epicentre The point on the Earth’s surface which is directly above the focus of an earthquake.
eye of storm The calm area at the centre of a tropical cyclone (hurricane, typhoon).
fold mountains A range of mountains formed by the crumpling of the Earth’s crust, as at a destructive margin.
hazard A natural event (e.g. earthquake, flood, landslide, volcanic eruption) that threatens or causes damage, destruction and death.
hurricane The name given to very powerful tropical cyclones in the Americas.
lava Molten rock from the Earth’s interior that pours out on the surface as a result of volcanic activity.
mantle A thick layer of rocks lying between the Earth’s crust and its molten core.
plate boundary The line separating two adjacent tectonic plates.
Richter scale A scale, ranging from 0 to 10, used in measuring the magnitude of earthquakes.
risk assessment Judging the amount of damage an area might expect from any given
seismograph An instrument used for measuring the occurrence and magnitude of an
earthquake’s shock waves.
tectonic plate A rigid segment of the Earth’s crust which can ‘float’ across the heavier, semi-molten rock below. Continental plates are less dense, but thicker than oceanic plates.
typhoon The name given to tropical cyclones in Asia.
volcano An opening in the Earth’s crust out of which lava, ash and gases erupt.


Try this quick BBC Site