Unit 3B Urban environments



Lesson 1


This is the classwork files:

Here is the PowerPoint for this week:

and this is the homework:

There is also some stuff on
http://ih-igcse-geography.wikispaces.com/6.1.Urbanisation
and
http://ih-igcse-geography.wikispaces.com/6.2.+Urbanisation+and+mega-cities
[The new syllabus that Y10 are doing is a bit different to yours but it does not yet have a textbook so I am building an online one. However, these 2 sections are very similar]
Links:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urban_area for defintions of urban and rural
http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/clips/s_geog/bb/s_geog_ec_00586_4x3_bb.asx for the video about how population has become more urbanised
http://www.ibiblio.org/lunarbin/worldpop for the what is the world population going to be?
http://ih-igcse-geography.wikispaces.com/file/view/megacities.pdf is the file by the German bank that looks at the growth of megacities and is where I got quite a few of the graphs from - the article has more

Lesson 2


This is the classwork files:

Here is the PowerPoint for this week:

and this is the homework:

An example of shanty development in the USA is California this summer
L

Useful links: Shanty towns
http://ih-igcse-geography.wikispaces.com/6.6+All+about+Shanty+towns

Article about shanties in America

Lesson 3


This is the classwork files:

Here is the PowerPoint for this week:
This is a short one + sundry contributions from your good selves

and this is the homework:

Here is the link from the homework to the Manchester Google map

Lesson 4


This is the classwork files:

Here is the PowerPoint for this week:

and this is the homework:

Links:
http://ih-igcse-geography.wikispaces.com/6.5+Reasons+for+and+consequences+of+segregation++between+groups
Also the textbook is very good on this:pages 144- 147

Lesson 5


Here is the PowerPoint for this week::

This is the classwork files
and
this is the homework:

Links:

Lesson6


This is the classwork files:

Here is the PowerPoint for this week:

and this is the homework:

Links:

This question seems to be causing a fair amount of grief


[ExamQu] Explain the challenges facing urban managers in managing change in the rural-urban fringe. (6)

It is about the managers – remember that list in the textbook: planners, politicians, developers, investors etc. Urban managers are all those people involved in creating new developments and include …. The challenges facing them are to make the best possible, sustainable decisions that they can. So, where a development does take place on urban fringes, the planners must try to ensure that there is as little disruption as possible to those living these areas, so reduce conflict. The architects must be aware of sustainability and the carbon foot print, hence trying to build in high quality building that reduces the need for power, and possibly even build in clean energy production, such as solar power. They also need to be aware of the impact on the countryside, such planting tree barriers to obscure the site.
See the kind of thing?

Good summary of the greenfield/brownfield discussion


http://www.usm.maine.edu/~lsavage/UrbanGeographyProjects/Brownfield/general_information.htm

Keywords

accessibility The ease with which people can get to a particular place.
affluence The general level of prosperity enjoyed by a population.
amenity A feature of the environment that is thought of as being pleasant, attractive or
beneficial (e.g. fine scenery, open space).
brownfield site Land that has been used, abandoned and now awaits some new use.
Commonly found in urban areas, particularly in the inner city.
built-up area The man-made landscape of a town or city with its buildings, transport
networks and urban land uses.
central business district (CBD) The central area of a town or city dominated by
department stores, specialist shops, restaurants, cinemas, theatres and hotels.
commuter A person travelling daily to and from a place of work located some distance
from their home.
counter-urbanisation The movement of people and activities away from large cities to
small towns, villages or the countryside.
cycle of deprivation A sequence of events experienced by disadvantaged people and
areas, in which one problem leads to another and so makes this worse.
decentralisation The movement of people, shops, offices and factories away from city
centres and the inner city towards suburban and edge-of-city locations.
deprivation The degree to which an individual or an area is deprived of services,
decent housing, adequate income and local employment.
ethnic group A group of people sharing the same characteristics of race, nationality,
language or religion.
flagship project A scheme aimed at improving the image and prestige of an area, for
example, the London Docklands project.
footloose industry An economic activity whose location is not controlled by any
particular factor, such as raw materials, labour or markets.
ghetto Part of a town or city containing a high proportion of one particular ethnic
group.
greenfield site A plot of land in a rural area that has not yet been subject to any
development.
heavy industry An industry involving large quantities of materials, such steel-making,
shipbuilding and petrochemicals.
high-tech industry Manufacturing involving advanced technology, such as the making
of microchips and computers. It also includes genetic engineering, communications
and information technology.
informal sector This is largely made up of jobs over which there is little or no official
control. It includes jobs such as child-minding, domestic cleaning and bar-tending.
inner city That part of the built-up area and close to the CBD, often characterised by
old housing, poor services and brownfield sites.
light industry The manufacture of products that are light in bulk and use small
amounts of raw materials.
million city A city with a population exceeding 1 million.
natural increase A growth in population produced when the crude birth rate exceeds
the crude death rate.
out-of-town shopping centre A large retailing complex located at or just beyond the
edge of the built-up area.
pollution A condition when environments (particularly air and water) become adverse
to the normal existence of living organisms. Sources of pollution range from sewage
outflows and agricultural fertilizers to factory chimneys and motor vehicle exhausts.
pull factor Something that attracts a migrant to a new location (e.g. freedom, a better
job).
push factor Something in the home area that forces or persuades a migrant to move
away (e.g. persecution, poverty).
quality of life Difficult to define, but it is often thought of as an umbrella term that takes
into account standard of living, welfare and well-being.
redevelopment When applied to the built-up area, it means demolishing all existing
buildings and starting afresh.
resource Something which meets the needs of people.
rural-urban fringe A zone of transition between the edge of the built-up area and the
surrounding countryside.
rural-urban migration The movement of people from the countryside into towns and
cities; an important part of urbanisation.
shanty town An area of makeshift and unsanitary housing, often occupied by
squatters, and found mainly in and around LEDC cities.
socio-economic group A group of people distinguished by employment, income and
social characteristics such as education and family status.
squatter Anyone who occupies a building or land without the legal right to do so.
standard of living The degree to which the needs and wants of a population are
satisfied. This degree is one of the measures of development.
suburbs The mainly residential parts of a town or city at or close to the edge of the
built-up area.
transnational company (TNC) A huge enterprise which operates on a global scale
and is involved in a wide variety of businesses.
urban Relating to, or characteristics of, a town or city.
urban fringe The outer edge of the built-up area.
urban hierarchy A grouping of the towns and cities of an area according any one of a
number of criteria, including population size and the services they provide.
urban land use model A simplified generalisation about the typical pattern of land use
in a town or city. One model sees the pattern in terms of concentric zones, another in
terms of sectors or wedges.
urban renewal The revival of old parts of the built-up area by either installing modern
facilities in old buildings (known as ‘improvement’) or opting for redevelopment.
urban sprawl A haphazard and loose spreading of a built-up area.
urbanisation The process of becoming more urban, mainly through more and more
people living in towns and cities.
welfare The general condition of a population in terms of diet, housing, healthcare,
education, etc.
well-being Similar to welfare, but more about personal satisfaction, happiness and
quality of life.